Iodized salt is sodium chloride enriched with iodine. Potassium iodate and potassium iodide are common iodine compounds used to treat salt. Iodized table salt is typically mixed with an anti-caking agent to keep it free flowing in humid environments, and possibly dextrose to prevent evaporation of the iodine compound.
Iodine deficiency leads to problems with the thyroid gland and intellectual impairment. It was a significant issue in previous decades, leading to introduction of iodization of table salt in the USA in the 1920s. Other nations followed suit across following decades, becoming mandatory in some countries within the past 15 years.
Individuals who entirely avoid table salt and iodine-containing salt substitutes should be conscious of finding alternative sources of iodine in their diet. Salt used in processed foods is not typically iodized. Individuals consuming extremely high levels of salt should be conscious of the negative effects of excessive iodine intake.
Sodium, sodium chloride