Titanium dioxide is a metallic compound. Nanoparticles are used in foods to create a white colour.
Due to their size, titanium dioxide nanoparticles are able to cross through the lining of intestinal cells and alter cell structure. These particles are also an increasingly common allergen and are able to promote allergic sensitization and lung inflammation. Consumption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles has been shown to cause inflammation and DNA damage in mice. Injection into mice caused loss of appetite, tremor, spleen damage, blockage of blood vessels, and, at high doses, pneumonia and severe cell damage in the liver, kidneys, and lungs.
Titanium dioxide is exempt from FDA certification, that is, new batches are not required to be tested for adherence to FDA regulations, by the FDA.
Dairy, dairy products, skim milk, cheese, white chocolate, candies, confectionery, mayonnaise, marshmallows, yogurt
Environmental Science & Technology
The Journal of Cancer Research
Journal of Applied Toxicology
Cell Biology and Toxicology
Basic Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
U.S. Food and Drug Administration