Orange 1 is a synthetic orange dye derived from coal tar. It was one of the original seven dyes approved for use in the US in 1906. It was banned in 1956, after extensive use in candies and popcorn, following reports of children becoming ill.
Studies in adults found that eating twelve hard candies at the time was sufficient to cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Studies in animals showed effects ranging from weight loss to death.
The reports of the event, which occurred in 1950, were the first to prompt the FDA to reinvestigate the safety of their approved dyes. Orange 1 is no longer in use.
Acid orange 20, FD&C orange 1, orange I