Hops are the flower of the Humulus lupulus plant which is used in the brewing of beer and production of herbal teas, soft drinks, and kvass. There are numerous varieties of hops, each of which impart distinct flavors and aromas to end products.
Hops contain potent phytoestrogens which can be imparted into beer during the brewing process. The phytoestrogen levels remaining in beer, however, are generally low. Hops extracts have been tested for use in the treatment of menopause due to their high phytoestrogen content. See: Phytoestrogens.
Individuals who are particularly concerned with phytoestrogens should avoid products produced using hops.
Beer, herbal tea, kvass, Malta, soft drinks, sodas
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism