Ethanol is the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. It is a psychoactive drug.
Consumption of small quantities of ethanol is associated with short-term increases in metabolism, stress reduction, and, in some alcoholic beverages, benefits to cardiovascular health. However, consumption of high quantities of ethanol, particularly when done regularly, is associated with fatty liver; organ damage including the brain, heart, and liver; numerous types of cancers; altered immune system function; lung infections; and changes to heart rate. Ethanol is also associated with fetal abnormalities, changes to levels of circulating sex hormones, and disturbances to behavior, mood, and mental state.
Both short- and long-term ethanol consumption can alter gene expression in neuronal circuitry involved in tolerance and dependence behaviours.
Flavoring extracts, kombucha, vinegars, mustard
British Journal of Nutrition
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
American Heart Journal
The New England Journal of Medicine
American Heart Journal 2
Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Alcohol Research: Current Reviews