Apple cider vinegar is a vinegar made from apple cider or must. It may be pasteurized or unpasteurized, containing the mother of vinegar bacterial culture. Its primary acids are acetic and malic acid.

Health considerations

Apple cider vinegar (ACV) delays gastric emptying and therefore digestion; this was studied and confirmed in type 1 diabetics, which may have negative effects on their blood sugar control. In diabetic and normal rats with a standard diet, consumption of ACV daily for 4 weeks improved their serum lipid profile, decreasing triglycerides and improving cholesterol profile. In non-diabetic rats with a high-cholesterol diet, ACV led to decreased triglycerides but a worse serum cholesterol profile. A study of human adults consuming two tablespoons of ACV before meals, demonstrated no difference in glycemic response or satiety compared to controls. ACV showed no anti-inflammatory effects in arthritic rats. Excessive consumption can damage tooth enamel and esophageal lining, and has been associated with a case of severe electrolyte imbalance.

Keep in mind

There are few published, controlled studies of apple cider vinegar use as a supplement. This does not align with the many pop stories of its “miraculous” health effects.

May be found in

Sold as is, salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, chutneys, relishes, sauces, pickles, supplements


Cardinal Scholar
Nutrition Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

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